Evaluation of Hospital Buildings in the Context of Life Processes and User Needs: Analyzing of Solution Proposals for Green Hospital Design on the Use of Daylight
Yeşil Hastane Tasarımına İlişkin Çözüm Önerileri
Keywords:Green hospital, hospital building requirements, green hospital life processes, green hospital design criteria, green hospital design proposals
A hospital building is primarily expected to be a healthy structure and to offer healthy environmental conditions for its users. Accordingly, it is essential to provide the appropriate infrastructure for the realization of healthy hospital designs.
However, with sustainability and green thinking becoming mainstream, the assessment tools developed for green hospitals has high potential to turn into labeling and competition tools between the hospital buildings. Studies in this field are generally on certification systems which are non-compulsory/voluntary assessment tools.
Research on green hospitals generally focuses on energy efficiency, efficient use of resources, waste management, etc. and draws limited attention to implementations for design, use/operation processes. In short, many studies emphasize green hospital evaluation tools and the economic sustainability aspects of green hospitals.
With this study, unlike the existing studies, sustainability in green hospital design is examined in three dimensions: economic-social-environmental/ecological, and in addition to the general criteria discussed in the compulsory/non-compulsory evaluation tools in the current studies, a series of solution proposals has been developed that covers the user-building requirements in detail through hospital life processes.
Health buildings require distinct and special design decisions unlike other building types. Their design should consider the health and comfort of many users such as patients, visitors, medical and administrative staff, etc.
On the other hand, healthcare facilities have serious effects on the environment, and a significant amount of energy and resource consumption and waste production occur throughout their service life. At this point, we encounter green hospitals which are designed in line with certain criteria in order to offer healthy environments to their users and to seek solutions to ecological and economic concerns.
Many dedicated sustainable assessment tools have been developed for green hospitals on both national and international scale over the last decades. Some of these tools are compulsory with laws, regulations, specifications, standards and while others are non-compulsory/voluntary design guides, certification systems, software, etc. However, the search for better design methods and evaluation tools for green hospitals still continues.
Certification systems, which are one of the most preferred tools in this field, are prepared in accordance with the local characteristics, laws and standards of the countries in which they are developed, therefore, various problems may occur in their adapting to the conditions of other countries. On the other hand, some certification systems are applicable to all building typologies and are not specific to hospitals. In other words, the widely accepted criteria for green building design are also valid in green hospital design. It is absolutely necessary to use green building criteria in the design of a green hospital; but this alone is not enough. Since hospitals are complex structures that serve different user groups simultaneously, in addition to these criteria the needs of their users should be considered.
Moreover, when the criteria of the compulsory /non-compulsory assessment tools are examined, it is seen that most of the criteria in different tools are similar or the same. This creates a variety of tools that make it difficult for designers to choose and make decisions. Based on these considerations, a proposal including solutions for green hospital design has been developed within the scope of the study. This creates a variety of tools that make it difficult for designers to choose and make decisions. Based on these considerations, a proposal including solutions for green hospital design has been developed within the scope of the study.
With the study, the post-design building life process stages (construction, use, demolition/dismantling) for hospitals were followed and the user-building requirements in the process stages were synthesized with the green building design criteria and design suggestions were presented.
The study will ensure that the right decisions are taken against the problems arising from not responding to the user-building needs at the design stage. Thus, it will be an alternative tool to be used for the green hospital design by following the general structure acquisition process stages without any labeling.
Every structure has a certain lifespan just like a living organism and the stages in this process are common to all structures/ hospitals. Therefore, the study, which is based on the idea of tracking the user-building requirements in the process stages, will be effective in providing a standardization on the tools developed for green hospital design. Since there is no national green hospital certification system in practice in Turkey, international certification systems are used. For this reason, suggested solutions will enable to create a customized system suitable for local conditions in Turkey, support Turkey Healthcare Buildings Minimum Design Standards currently used and to eliminate adaptation problems. Last but not least, the study will contribute to the development of different applications and methods to be used in green hospital design.