Impact of industry 4.0 on the presentation of the historical environment
Endüstri 4.0 ve Tarihsel Çevrenin Sunumu
Keywords:Historical environment, cultural heritage, preservation, presentation methods, industry 4.0
The presentation is of great importance for the development of sustainable perception of the historical environment, which is the future of the past, as well as to foster public awareness and engagement of conservation. The presentation aims to introduce, understand, examine, and adopt a historical building or environment. In this context, the presentation methods used are important to achieve the goal. They are used to create physical and virtual environments, which are used to strengthen the user’s connection with the historical environment and to increase the interaction with the presented object. Promoting the use of modern techniques within the scope of conservation charters, the acceleration of current technological developments, and the increasing digitalization in the architectural conservation discipline have led to the emergence of new presentation methods in the protection and conservation of historical environments. Aim of the study is to discuss with examples, how to use the presentation methods, which are the reflections of the striking innovations in technology in the discipline of conservation, especially in the presentation of the historical environment, in parallel with the rapid change of the world, to make a comparative evaluation and to develop suggestions. The scope of the article is limited to the use of technological presentation methods being developed in the context of Industry 4.0 in the discipline of conservation. These presentation methods are video projection mapping, virtual reality, augmented reality, H- BIM (Heritage Building Information Modelling), and 3D- GIS (three-dimensional geographic information systems). These methods were examined in terms of their technological developments in the historical process and their use in preservation of the historical environment. Then, the relationship among these presentation methods were studied with the comparative method and presented from a holistic point of view. Using the video projection method to project virtual images to the existing physical environment, to highlight historical buildings and building elements, or to make light plays to change the perception of audiences and to increase the attention of individuals, shows similarity with the purposes of using other visual presentation methods used in the historical environment. Although the video projection method differs from other methods in terms of the equipment used, it can be accepted as the pioneer of these methods in terms of technology and theory. Then, the presentation methods examined were evaluated on the criteria determined within the framework of the concept of presentation, which is considered as an act of preservation. The said criteria are; in situ/ ex-situ presentation capability, reliability of information, development potential, target users, sustainability, awareness, level of interaction, potential to present intangibles, remote access capability, compatibility/ integrated use, and level of detail. The principles developed in the theoretical framework of the presentation and the concepts emphasized in the international charters associated with the presentation in the field of preservation of the historical environment in the study were effective in determining these criteria. Thanks to the advances in technology with Industry 4.0, the efficiency of the presentation is increased by using these methods in an integrated manner. In this context, the interoperability of the related presentation methods in the conservation discipline is examined through examples. In the evaluation and conclusion part, the examined presentation methods were compared on the determined criteria and subjected to a scoring. Accordingly, the positive and negative aspects of each method in terms of the presentation and interpretation of the historical environment were evaluated comparatively. Suggestions have been developed on how these methods can be used more effectively in the presentation of the historical environment. Nowadays, technologies such as remote sensing, GPS, cloud, and the internet of things, which have developed with Industry 4.0, enable the development of the investigated presentation methods. In addition, thanks to the developing technology, the interoperability levels of these methods are increasing. While all these developments increase the effectiveness of presentation methods, they make the documentation and presentation of the historical environment more efficient. This is important not only for audiences but also for experts to work more effectively and for more comprehensive and rapid monitoring or inspection of the historical environment. In addition, the methods in question can be shaped according to the purpose of their use, to raise the level of awareness about the historical environment, from every segment of the society and every age group. Developing and using these methods more frequently today will enable the historical environment, which holds the past and the future together, to be accessible from anywhere and further strengthen the perception of preservation.